Article Now Available on Textual Layers in Codex Bezae

I recently published an article on textual layers in Codex Bezae found here:

Analyzing Textual Stratification in the Greek Gospel Text of Codex Bezae: Comparing Three Approaches to Layer Extraction in John 4,1–42 (2015)

It is one thing of course to suggest that Codex Bezae attests a mixed text with readings from multiple sources combined into its final text. But it is quite another matter to identify and extract these sources in a systematic and repeatable way. The basic method was proposed by Michael Holmes in a 1996 essay (“Codex Bezae as a Recension of the Gospels”). Holmes then successfully demonstrated this method on the text of Matthew. The consistency of his results speaks for itself.

My goal in this paper is to identify more accurate and efficient techniques to extract Bezae’s layers based on Holmes key insights, namely

  1. That the same witnesses are often found together in support of distinct subsets of Bezae’s readings and
  2. That any group of readings supported by essentially the same selection of witnesses represents a ‘layer,’ which we can treat as a distinct element of Bezae’s tradition.

The motivation is to repeat Holmes’ proof-of-concept on the text of Matthew with other full-scale applications in other parts of Bezae. The article uses complete IGNTP transcriptions for a small part of John.

From the abstract:

It has been suggested that Codex Bezae’s Greek column (D) attests a stratified text, consisting of distinct layers of readings that reflect its historical contact with different traditions. Using John 4:1-42 as a case study, this paper compares three methods of partitioning D’s readings by layer: first, Holmes’ (1996) method based on patterns of agreement; second, a proposed method based on the levels of D’s readings in local genealogies; and, third, a proposed method based on multivariate clustering.

The result shows that Bezae’s readings tend to bifurcate cleanly between two main layers, a mainstream layer and an Old Latin layer.

Did Hippolytus cite the long ending of Mark?

Michael Holmes writes in “To Be Continued … The Many Endings of the Gospel of Mark” (2001, p. 19):

the church father Hippolytus (c. 170–236) quotes [Mark] 16:17-18

But as far as I can tell, the citation is not found in the major work of the figure(s) known as Hippolytus. For starters, I checked the indices for the critical editions of Refutatio omnium haeresium (Marcovich, 1986), Kommentar zu Daniel (Bonwetsch and Richard, 2000), De antichristo (Norelli, 1987), Contro Noeto (Simonetti, 2000), De David et de Goliath/De Cantico (Garitte, 1965). There is no citation or even allusion to Mark 16:17-18. What’s going on?

It seems the attribution stems from a rather full citation of Mark 16:17-18 in book 8, chapter 1, paragraph 1 of the fourth-century Apostolic Constitutions (=CA) (8.1.1)

Σημεια δε τοις πιστευσασιν ταυτα παρακολουθησει εν τω ονοματι μου δαιμονια εκβαλουσιν, γλωσσαις λαλησουσιν καιναις, οφεις αρουσιν καν θανασιμον τι πιωσιν ου μη αυτους βλαψει επι αρρωστους χειρας επιθησουσιν και καλως εξουσιν

This occurs in a brief section on the charismatic gifts comprising the first two chapters of book 8 of CA (8.1-2). It is true that CA immediately after contains a reworking of much smaller work known by the similar name, Apostolic Traditions (8.3-45), attributed to an elusive Hippolytus of Rome (on the basis of the famous statue). But it seems precarious at best to attribute the adjacent chapters (8.1-2) to the same author merely because of their placement. This seems to be D. C. Parker’s reasoning when he writes in The Living Text of the Gospels (1997, p. 133)

Hippolytus quotes from verses 17 and 18, in a fragment of a writing on spiritual gifts that is preserved in Apostolic Constitutions 8.1

So the attribution of the citation of the Markan long ending to Hippolytus rests on the placement of anonymous material besides a doubtful attribution (yes, based on the statue) to a figure whose existence is no less obscure than the works attributed to him.